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高一的英语语法常见的几个误区与数词语法
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高中英语语法学习常见的几个误区

(一)对名词数的概念和规则掌握不好

英语中的名词有单数、复数、可数、不可数等形式,其变化形势复杂规则繁多,中学生常常对这些规则的运用不能得心应手,而汉语的名词有没有数的概念,一步强调可数与不可数。如:passer-by →(过路人),woman teachers →(女教师)。有些名词形式上虽然是单数,意义上却是复数。如:police →(警察),cattle→ (牛)。而另一些名词形式上虽然是复数,意义上却是单数。如:news →(消息),works →(著作)等。

(二)冠词的用法相互混淆

虽说英语中只有定冠词和不定冠词,但其用法并非三言两语可以说清,即使掌握一些规律也有不少例外。中国学生对用与不用冠词极其容易混淆。 Can you play the violin?(在于其名词前,用定冠词)

The young has turned writer.(在turn等连系动词后作表语的单数名词前习惯上不加上冠词)

(三)对英语动词的几种形式相互混淆

英语动词是句子的关键。就英语动词分类而言,有及物动词、不及物动词、瞬间动词、延续动词、感官动词、连系动词等,每一类的动词都有各自的用法特征,中国学生常常把不及物动词当做及物动词用,把瞬间动词当做延续动词用。

(误)He has come here for three years.

(正)He has been here for three years.(误)I have bought the computer for a long time

(正)I have had the computer for a long time

就动词的形式而言,非限定动词的时态和语态也令中国学生头痛,因为有些动词要求后面接动名词作宾语,有些动词要求后面接动词不定式作宾语,还有的两者都可以接。

Would you mind opening the window?

I remember seeing him somewhere before.

Please remember to shut the door.

又如,非谓语动词不仅仅跟句子中的主语有直接的逻辑关系,而且还跟非谓语动词做什么状语有关。

(误)Seeing from the top of the hill , the city looks much more beautiful.

(正)Seen from the top of the hill , the city looks much more beautiful.

“see” 的主语应该是人,而不是“the city”,因此要用 “see” 的过去分词形式,表示被动。类似这样的错误在学生中是很常见的。

(四)易混淆动词的时态概念和形式

英语动词的时态有16种,常用的也有9种。虽说他们的形式是固定的,但用法是灵活的。因此中国学生常常把某种时态的用法套在另一种时态的用法上。该用过去时态的地方却用过去完成时态代替,该用过去完成时态的地方却过去时态用代替。

(误)I had met him in the street this morning.

(正)I met him in the street this morning.

(误)I thought you finished your homework.

(正)I had thought you finished your homework.

(误)When I got to the cinema ,the film already began.

(正)When I got to the cinema ,the film had already begun..

(五)对英语被动语态的形式和用法不能运用自如

汉语中比英语被动语态的使用频率相对来说要少得多。中国学生不习惯用英语被动句。汉语的被动句往往就用一个字就可以决定其被动意思,而英语的被动形式不仅与动词本身的形式有关,而且还与时态、语气以及主语与动词的关系有关。

(误)Australia speaks English.

(正)English is spoken in Australia.

(误)What is to do next?

(正)What is to be done next?

(误)I remember taking to Beijing when I was a child.

(正)I remember being taken to Beijing when I was a child.

(六)虚拟语气形式的复杂性和用法的灵活性令中国学生感到困惑

(误)I wish I know the answer now.

(正)I wish I knew the answer now.

(误)If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would meet the scientist.

(正)If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met the scientist.

(误)I suggest he goes to see the doctor at once.

(正)I suggest he (should) go to see the doctor at once.

(七)不用或错用英语连接词

汉语是综合性语言,强调的是“意合”,句语句之间可以不用连词,把种.种关系隐含在上下文中:英语是分析性语言,强调的是“行合”,句语句之间或者是主句和从句之间需要一种方式来表达它们之间的句法关系。

(误)Although he is old, but he works hard.

(正)Although he is old, he works hard.

(误)Because he was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

(正)Because he was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

(正)Because he was ill, he didn’t go to school.

(正)He was ill, so he didn’t go to school.

(八)忽视一致性问题

汉语的人称代词和主谓一致问题十分简单,但英语中的人称和主谓一致的问题却比较复杂,令中国学生困惑不已。

(误)Three years in a foreign country seem like a long time.

(正)Three years in a foreign country seems like a long time.

注:主语形式上虽为复数,但意义上视为单数,谓语动词应该为单数形式。

(误)The mother together with her daughter are on the way to school.

(正)The mother together with her daughter is on the way to school.

注:主语是“The mother”而不是“The mother together with her daughter”。因此谓语动词应该为单数形式。

(误)The crowd was fighting for their lives.

(正)The crowd were fighting for their lives.

注:主语形式上虽为单数,但意义上视为复数,谓语动词应该为复数形式。

(九)英语从句形式多且表现形式复杂

英语的从句主要有:主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句、状语从句等,每种从句都要求用相应的语法形式。因此牵涉到连词、关系代词、关系副词的选择时,中国学生就很容易混淆;在英语表达时,也往往忽视英语中的连词。

1、 主语从句

(误)If he’s coming or not doesn’t matter too much.

(正)Whether he’s coming or not doesn’t matter too much.

2、表语从句

(误)This is that he want.

(正)This is what he want.

3、定语从句

(误)Everything which he said greatly interested us.

(正)Everything that he said greatly interested us.

4、同位语从句

(误)That fact which the earth travels around the sun is known to all.

(正)That fact that the earth travels around the sun is known to all.

5、状语从句

(误)However you say , I will not change my mind.

(正)Whatever you say , I will not change my mind.

高中英语语法之数词知识点总结

01

基数词

表示数目多少或顺序先后的词叫数词。

1.基数词的构成:

1-10 one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten;

11-19 eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen,

seventeen, eighteen, nineteen;

20-90 twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety;

≥ 100

100 a/one hundred;

1,000 a/one thousand;

1,000,000 a/one million;

1, 000,000,000 a/one billion = a/one thousand million

2. 基数词的用法

1)作主语:

Three will be enough for us.

三个对我们来说就足够了。

Two of the girls are from Tokyo.

这些姑娘中有两位来自东京。

2)作宾语:

Four people applied for this job, but we only need one.

四个人申请这工作,但我们仅需一人。

3)作表语:

The population of China is over 1.3 billion.

中国有十三亿多人口。

I’m twenty while my brother is sixteen.

我二十岁,我弟弟十六岁。

4)作定语:

We have 300 workers in our company.

我们公司有三百名员工。

Forty students were involved in the interview. 四十名学生参加了这次采访。

5)作同位语:

You two clean these seats.

你们两个打扫这些位子。

Have you got tickets for us three?

有我们三个人的票吗?

02

序数词

表示顺序或等级。

1. 序数词的构成:

1-10:first 1st; second 2nd; third 3rd; fourth 4th; fifth 5th; sixth 6th; seventh 7th;eighth 8th; ninth 9th; tenth 10th;

11-19:eleventh 11th; twelfth 12th; thirteenth 13th; fourteenth 14th ;fifteenth 15th; sixteenth 16th; seventeenth 17th; eighteenth 18th;nineteenth 19th;

20-90:twentieth 20th; thirtieth 30th; fortieth 40th; fiftieth 50th; sixtieth 60th;seventieth 70th; eightieth 80th; ninetieth 90th;

≥100:

100 hundredth;

1,000 thousandth;

1,000,000 millionth;

1,000,000,000 billionth

2、序数词的用法

1)作主语:

The second is what I really need.

第二个是我真正需要的。

The first bottle has been full but the second is empty.

第一个瓶已满,但第二个还空着。

2)作宾语:

I got a third in biology.

我生物得到了第三名。

Do you prefer the first or the second?

第一个和第二个你更喜欢哪一个呢?

3)作表语:

I will be the first to support you and the last to oppose you

我将是第一个支持你的人,也是最不会反对你的人。

Columbus was the first who discovered America.

哥伦布是第一个发现美洲的人。

4)作定语:

I’ll try a second time and see if I can do it.

我还要试一次,看看我能否做得了。

Take the first turn to the right and then the second turn to the left and you’ll get there.

在第一个转弯处向右转,然后在第二个转弯处向左转就到了。

5)作状语:

He came second in the race.

他在赛跑中得了第二名。

It was a snowy day when we first met.

我们初次见面时是一个下雪的日子。

3、 序数词前冠词的使用

1) 明确指明了先后顺序或一系列事物按一定的规律排列时,序数词前用定冠词。

This is the second time that I have been in London.

这是我第二次来伦敦。

Alva is the fifth child of the Whites.

阿尔瓦市怀特家的第五个孩子。

2) 表示“又一、再一”,不强调顺序时,序数词前用不定冠词。

You have bought four toys today. Why do you want to buy a fifth one?

今天你已经买了四个玩具了,为什么还想再买一个呢?

I failed again, but I will try a third time.

我又失败了,可是我要再试一次。

3) 序数词前有形容词性物主代词、名词所有格或其他修饰语时不用任何冠词。

My first five years of childhood was spent with my grandparents.

我五岁前是和祖父母一块度过的。

Mrs. Black’s second child is a genius.

布莱克夫人的第二个孩子是个天才。

4) 序数词与名词构成复合形容词时,冠词由被修饰词而定。此时序数词是复合形容词的一部分而不是独立的,前面的冠词完全由这个形容词所修饰的名词而定。

This MPV car is a second-hand one.

这辆商务车是二手的。

Habit is second nature.

习惯是第二天性。

5) 序数词还可作副词,此时不用任何冠词。

First I am short of money; second I haven’t enough time.

首先我缺钱,其次我没有足够的时间。

6) 序数词用在表示“每隔……”的every 后,其前不用冠词。

every second day 每隔一天

every fifth day 每隔四天

every second line 每隔一行

7) 某些固定搭配中序数词前不用冠词。

first of all 首先

at first 起初

at first sight 乍一看,第一

03

数词的用法

1. 分数:表示分数时,分子须用基数词,分母须用序数词。

(分子是1以上的任何数时,作分母的序数词要用复数形式。)

1) 真分数通常用英语单词表达。

one-fourth 四分之一

two-fifths 五分之二

a quarter 四分之一

2) 分子和分母的数目较大时,两者都用基数词,之间用over/by/out of/in 连接。

Seven over/out of/in twenty of the students have passed the flight test.

二十个学生中有七个通过了飞行测试。

3) 带分数:“整数+ and + 分数部分”。

Two and a quarter inches of rain fell over the weekend.

周末期间的降雨量达二又四分之一英寸。

2. 小数:小数总是用阿拉伯数字表达。小数点后不论有多少位都不能用逗号分开,但小数点之前的数依然按照三位一个逗号的原则书写。

0.786432 120,372.428

注意:小数点前的数按普通基数词的读法读,小数点后的数每一位都要单独读。

15.503 读作fifteen point five zero three

0.05 读作zero point zero five

3. 百分数:百分数中的数目用阿拉伯数字,后接percent或百分号(%),在专业统计或表格中常用%代替percent,在句首时则用英语单词书写。

I have invested 40 percent of my income.

我把40%的收入用作投资了。

Farmers’ income has increased by 30%.

农民的收入已经增加了30%。

4、 倍数:表示倍数时,一倍用once,两倍 用twice/double,三倍以上用“基数词+ times”。

1)“倍数 + as many/much … as …”

My deskmate clamed to have twice as many stamps as I.

我同桌声称他的邮票是我的两倍。

This computer costs three times as much as that one.

这台计算机的价格是那台的三倍。

2)“倍数 + the size of …”

用法与size相同的名词常见的有weight(重量),height(高度),depth(深度),width(宽度),age(年龄),length(长度)等。

Our playground is five times the size of theirs.

我们的操场是他们的五倍大。

This street is twice/double the width of that one.

这条大街是那条大街的两倍宽。

3)“倍数 + what从句”

The value of the house is double what it was.

这所房子的价值是原来的两倍。

People’s average income is almost five times what they earned ten years ago.人们的平均收入是十年前的五倍。

4)“倍数 + 比较级 + than”

The room is twice larger than ours.

这间房子比我们的房子大两倍。

This ball seats three times more people than that one.

这个大厅能坐的人数是那个大厅的四倍。

5)“比较级 + than … + by + 倍数/程度”

The line is longer than that one by twice.

这根线是那根线的两倍长。

The population of China is larger than that of the US by over 6 times.

中国人口是美国人口的六倍多。

5、四则运算:

1)加法:在口语中,小数目的加法常用and代表“+”,is 或 are 代表“=”。

在正式的场合或较大数目的加法用plus代表“+”,equals或is 代表“=”。

7+4=11 Seven and four is/are eleven.

13+12=25 Thirteen plus twelve equals/is twenty-five.

2) 减法:在口语中,小数目的减法用“Take away + 减数 + from + 被减数 + and you get + 余数”

“减数 + from + 被减数 + leaves/is + 余数”

在正式的场合或较大数目的减法用minus 代表“—”,equals 代表“=”。

12-5=7 Five from twelve leaves/is seven. /Take away five from twelve and you get seven.

21-7=14 Twenty-one minus seven equals fourteen.

3) 乘法:在口语中,小数目的乘法的乘数用复数形式,用are 代表“=”。

大数目的乘法用times代表“×”,is/makes 代表“=”。

在正式的场合下用multiplied by 代表“×”,equals 代表“=”。

4×5=20 Four fives are twenty

326×238=77588

Three hundred and twenty-six times two hundred and thirty-eight is/makes seventy-seven thousand five hundred and eighty-eight.

Three hundred and twenty-six multiplied by two hundred and thirty-eight equals seventy-seven thousand five hundred and eighty-eight.

4) 除法:小数目的除法:用divided by 代表“÷”,equals 代表“=”。

“被除数 + divided by + 除数 + equals + 商”;“除数 + into + 被除数 + goes + 商”

32÷4=8 Thirty-two divided by four equals eight.

Four into thirty-two goes eight.

大数目的除法:用divided by 代表“÷”,equals 代表“=”。

216÷8=27

Two hundred and sixteen divided by eight equals twenty-seven.

6、比率:一般来说表示比率都用阿拉伯数字(包括句首的情况),但在非专业性的文字中,也可用英语单词的形式。

The ratio of 7 to 4 is written 7:4 or 7/4.

七比四写作7:4或7/4。

You have a fifty to fifty chance of success.

你成功的机会只有一半。

7、编号:用基数词时 名词 + 基数词 World War Ⅰ/Page 8/Room 109…

用序数词时 the + 序数词 + 名词 the First World War

8、年代与几十几岁:通常是逢十的基数词用作复数形式。表示年代的数词前用定冠词 in the 90s;表示岁数的数词前用形容词用物主代词 in one’s twenties

9、约数:

1)表示“大约”可以用about/some/around/nearly/something like/more or less,用or so 表示“左右、大约”置于数词之后。

The man in rags is about/some sixty years old.

The man in rags is sixty years old or so.

那个衣衫褴褛的男子大约有六十岁/六十岁左右。

Peter is something like thirty.

皮特大约有三十岁。

2)“多于、超过”用more/than/over/above;“少于、不超过”用less than。

She was more than/less than forty when she got married.

她结婚时有四十多岁/不到四十岁。

3)其他

半天(小时)half a day=a half day; half an hour=a half hour

一个半 a day and a half=one and a half days

两天半 two days and a half=two and a half days

一两天……one or two days=a day or two

两三天/周/个苹果 a couple of days/weeks/apples…

三番五次 again and again; repeatedly; time and (time) again; over and over again; time after time

三年五载 from three to five years; in a few years

三三两两 in twos and threes; in knots


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